Category Archives: Academic Writing II

AW2: WEEK 3, OCTOBER 18TH, 2019

Homework

  • Choose ONE topic for your persuasive essay. This can be one of the two topics you used for last week’s homework, or a different topic (if you want to choose something NOT on the list in the textbook, email me first).
  • Start writing your essay: at least write the 3 body paragraphs with topic sentences. Type or write it, and bring it to class next week.

Today’s class

  1. Group discussions of homework (2 persuasive essay topics’ arguments and counter-arguments)
  2. How to persuade people?
    1. Aristotle identified three basic ways:
      1. Logos – appeal to reason (e.g. explaining advantages and disadvantages)</li >
      2. ethos – appeal to morality (e.g. appeal to justice, to doing good or doing the right thing)
      3. pathos – appeal to emotion (e.g. using fear, greed, passion, desire)
    2. Aristotle thought good (effective) speakers should use whichever would be most effective, depending on their audience.
    3. However, generally speaking, for academic writing, use #1.
  3. Structure of an argument (Toulmin model)
      1. Argument = opinion + evidence + support /explanation
          1. Opinion = claim (often using words like “should” or “should not”, “good” or “bad”, etc)
          2. evidence = evidence to support the claim (also called “grounds” or “data”)
          3. support/explanation = warrant. The warrant is often a general rule or principle about how the world works.
            1. “An author usually will not bother to explain the warrant because it is too obvious. It is usually an assumption or a generalization. However, the author must make sure the warrant is clear because the reader must understand the author’s assumptions and why the author assumes these opinions.” (Wikipedia)
          4. counter-argument (also called “rebuttal”)
            1. Often introduced by “However”, “Some people say that…” or similar phrase.
        1. Practice writing warrants for these sample arguments:
          1. Claim 1 – “The 2020 Olympics in Tokyo are a good idea”
          2. Evidence 1  – “because the economy will develop”.
          3. Warrant 1  –
          4. Claim  2 – “The 2020 Olympics in Tokyo are not a good idea”
          5. Evidence 2  – “because Japan will become unsafe”
          6. Warrant 2 –
          7. Evidence 2a – “because there will be a risk of terrorism”
          8. Warrant 2a –
          9. Claim 3 – “Nuclear power is good”
          10. Evidence 3 – because of a positive effect on the economy”
          11. Warrant 3 –
          12. Claim 4 – “Nuclear power is not good”
          13. Evidence 4 – “because it is dangerous”
          14. Warrant 4 –
        2. Counter-argument 4 – “However, …(complete) 

Your email address is not made public. Thank you for visiting.

AW2: Week 2, October 11th, 2019

Homework

  • Choose 2 topics from the list on p. 95 (change #4 to “2020 Tokyo Olympics”)
  • write 2 or 3 arguments FOR and AGAINST the topic (you may need to do a bit of research). You are not just expressing YOUR opinion, but also what OTHER people think about this topic.
  • Bring to class next week.

Today’s class

  1. Body paragraph 1: compare the student originals and Sheffner’s rewrites. What changes did he make and why? Discuss in small groups. Download today’s handout here.
  2. Typical rewrite reasons:
    1. colloquial (= non-academic) language –> academic (formal, scientific) language. E.g. don’t –> do not, get better –> improve, get –> buy/purchase, even so –> nonetheless/however, so –> therefore, etc.
    2. avoid repetition (e.g. replace nouns with pronouns). AVOID USING “WE”.
    3. less is more (generally speaking), e.g. 3 words are better than 6. E.g. clothes we buy for every day –> everyday clothes, school uniform that public junior high school students wore –> public junior high school uniforms, etc.
    4. detail in the wrong place – details do not belong in the introductory paragraph but in the body paragraphs. E.g. According to Mainichi Shimbun on February 14 in 2018, Taimei elementary school in Tokyo decided to use school uniforms designed by Italian luxury brand “Armani” –> According to a 2018 newspaper article, a Tokyo school decided to use uniforms designed by a luxury brand.
    5. expand to make a point clearer – sometimes less is NOT more. Sometimes, arguments need to be explained explicitly (especially warrants; more on this later). E.g., we cannot contact with them –> they may not know who or how to contact them.
  3. Textbook p. 93 Practice 1

Your email address is not made public. Thank you for visiting.

AW2: WEEK 1, October 4th, 2019

Homework

  1. Refresh your memory about the correct email format here
  2. Send me an email with a short comment about today’s class. Use the correct format! Subject: AW2 HW1
  3. Finish noting about the introductory paragraphs in today’s handout (download today’s handout here)
  4. Read the sample essay in the textbook pp 91-2. We will answer questions about this essay in class next week. Be prepared.

Today’s class

  • Textbook for this semester is the same: Writers at Work – The Essay. We will use chapters 4-6.
  • To pass the course, you must write and hand in by the deadline THREE essays of a satisfactory quality.
  • Checklist for introductory paragraphs + sample paragraphs from previous years.
    • read the student introductory paragraphs and evaluate them using the 4-point checklist . If you attended this class, you received everything on a single handout. If not, you can download them as two separate handouts below:
  • Here’s the checklist:
    1. The title should clearly state the content and author’s position.
      • Good example – “School Uniforms are Necessary”
      • Not so good example – “Take it for Free?”
    2. Avoid rhetorical questions: “a question asked in order to create a dramatic effect or to make a point rather than to get an answer.”
    3. Introductory paragraph must contain a thesis statement.
    4. Detailed information belongs in the body paragraphs, not the introduction. The introduction is to introduce the topic (the problem, the matter being discussed in the essay) and the author’s position on it.
  • DIscuss in groups.
  • Textbook p. 94 D, p. 96 Practice 3, p. 98 D, p. 99 E.


Your email address is not made public. Thank you for visiting.

AW2: WEEK 15, February 1st, 2019

Announcement

Well done to all the students who wrote their final timed essays. If you still need to hand in an essay, I need to receive it by email (because I’m not coming back to KPU until next semester) and by Friday Feb. 8th as I must hand in your final grades by then.

I enjoyed teaching you all, and I look forward to teaching your juniors next April. If any of you would like to chat with me after class, come and find me after 4th period on Fridays. I’ll be happy to see you.

Today’s class

Clarification of main points of academic writing:

  1. Define your terms (meaning of the key words in the question, title or topic). E.g. “War means destruction and ‘good for the economy’ means some businesses will get profits from war.” Or, “Japanese New Year traditions include first visit to the shrine, sending and receiving New Year’s cards, giving New Year’s money gifts and preparing and eating traditional New Year’s dishes. There are others but these are the ones most familiar to people today.”
  2. Avoid rhetorical questions, e.g. “Is war really good for the economy?”
  3. Answer the question: “Discuss” does NOT mean “persuade”; avoid using the words like “should” or “I (dis)agree” in such an essay.

For your final timed essay (45 minutes), choose one of the four timed essays assigned so far. No dictionaries, no Internet devices, no notes.


Your email address is not made public. Thank you for visiting.

AW2: WEEK 14, JANUARY 25TH, 2019

Homework

  • Read my comments on your timed essays of January 16th.
  • Read the sample essays I handed out in class.
  • Re-read chapter 6 of the textbook
  • Prepare to write your best timed essay in next week’s class.

Book sale! 50% off any of these old books of mine for any of my Academic Writing 2 students! Free shipping! Just send me an email telling me the book(s) you are interested in, and I’ll send you them within a few days.

Today’s class

  1. Handouts: download the 2 sample essays here
  2. Timed essay #3: “War is good for the economy”. Discuss.
    1. You should refer to Bastiat’s essay “The Broken Window Fallacy”.
    2. You should explain why some people think that war is good for the economy, and
    3. why others (like Bastiat) do not.
  3. Timed essay #4: “Nobody should make a big decision without consulting at least one other person.” Discuss.
    1. Points to mention in your essay:
      1. Define your terms: what is a “big” decision?
      2. Give at least one example (perhaps from your own experience) where consultation happened and that was beneficial;
      3. Give at least one example (perhaps from your own experience) where consultation happened and that was a mistake;
      4. Give an example of an important decision where consultation is not possible.
      5. Conclusion.


Your email address is not made public. Thank you for visiting.

AW2: WEEK 13, JANUARY 18TH, 2019

Update – essay #5 class collection now available

Essay #5 class collection is now available for free download here: https://www.sheffnersweb.net/blogs/classblogs/kpu/download/essay-5-class-collection/

Many thanks to all those students who gave permission for their essay to be used.

Homework

  1. What was one big decision that you had to make? When? How did you decide? Who did you consult (if anyone)? Why did you consult (or why not)?
  2. “The broken window fallacy” (note: there are at least two versions of the story; the one you should know is the story by French economist Frederic Bastiat). You will need to know the story in order to write next week’s timed essay.
    1. Learn the story
    2. Understand what it means

Today’s class

  1. Think academically = think like an academic:
    1. analyze meaning (e.g. what does “akemashite” mean? What does “hatsu-mode” mean?)
      1. ask “who? what? when? where? how? why?” (e.g. when do people say “akemashite”? When do they go to “hatsu-mode”? What is “hatsu-mode”? Why do people do it? Who does it? Where? etc.)
  2. Timed essay #1 (30 minutes):
    1. ‘”America First” is good for Japan.’ Discuss.
      1. Paragraph #1 – explain the correct meaning of “America First”, its history (what? when? who?)
      2. Paragraph #2 – suggest some arguments for and against this policy (or you can make the “for” arguments paragraph #2 and the “against” arguments paragraph #3).
      3. Your personal conclusion with your reasons.
  3. Timed essay #2 (30 minutes):
    1. ‘Japanese New Year traditions have no meaning in today’s world.’ Discuss.
      1. What are some Japanese New Year traditions? Why are they traditions? When did they start (for example)?
      2. Give some arguments for and against (or you can make the “against” arguments paragraph #3).
      3. Your personal conclusion with reasons.


Your email address is not made public. Thank you for visiting.

AW2: WEEK 12, JANUARY 11TH, 2019

Homework

  1. If you did not give me your Essay 5 Final draft (see here) on Friday Jan. 11th, please email it to me as soon as possible.
  2. Finish the textbook exercises, if you did not finish in class:
    1. Textbook p. 134 – answer questions 1-4.
    2. Textbook p. 135 – read the sample timed essay
    3. p. 136 – read section C
    4. p. 137 – read section D
    5. p. 138 – practice 3
  3. “America First” is good for Japan. Discuss (= write two paragraphs as explained below).
    1. Research the meaning and history of the phrase “America First” – one paragraph.
    2. Based on paragraph 1, discuss (write one paragraph about) the advantages and disadvantages to Japan of an America First foreign policy.

Today’s class

  1. Read a classmate’s or your own final draft of Essay #5. Make any final changes by hand.
  2. Write 100 words to explain in English to someone who knows nothing about Japan about the following:
    1. o-sechi ryori
    2. hatsu moude
    3. “akemashite omedetou”
  3. Do the textbook exercises above.
  4. Do you give your permission for your essay #5 to appear in the class collection?
    1. If “yes”, do you want your name to appear on it, or not?


Your email address is not made public. Thank you for visiting.

AW2: WEEK 11, DECEMBER 21st, 2018

Homework

This is for January 11th. Please email it to me by Jan. 11th and bring a printed copy to class on that day.

In the January 18, 25th and Feb. 1st classes, students will write timed  essays in class. All students must complete at least two timed  essays (as well as hand in essays #4 and #5 of good quality).

Happy holidays!

Write your final draft of Essay #5 “Response essay”. You should by now have written at least two different pieces of response writing:

  1. response to a piece of writing (fiction or non-fiction), a song, a movie, a poem, etc.
  2. a summary of the main arguments of two articles with different or opposing points of view on a controversial topic

For your final draft, you may use either of these.

If you use #1, make it as objective as possible; e,g, instead of “This is my favourite movie”, write, “This movie was very successful in Japan, grossing ….. million yen in revenue and watched by approximately 8 million people.” You may give your judgment or feelings about it in the final paragraph.

You must:

  1. introduce the original source (book, movie, etc) in your introductory paragraph. See the sample essay in the textbook (p. 113) for one way to do that.
  2. correctly summarize the main points (ideas, arguments, message) of the book, movie, poem, etc. Keep your summary of the story to one or two sentences only.
  3. Include at least one direct quote and one indirect quote from the original book, movie or song, etc.
  4. include a bibliography or “works cited” section, correctly formatted according to MLA guidelines. See the Academic Writing Resources page for links.
    1. No Chinese characters.
    2. Give the exact titles of articles used; do not translate the title of a Japanese article into English.

If you use #2, you must

  • add an introductory paragraph, giving (if necessary) background information on the situation in Japan for non-Japanese readers.
  • introduce the original source (book, movie, etc) in your introductory paragraph. See the sample essay in the textbook (p. 113) for one way to do that.
  • correctly summarize the main arguments of each article
  • Include at least one direct quote and one indirect quote from the 2 articles.
  • add a concluding paragraph. In that paragraph, give your assessment (judgment, opinion) of the competing arguments. E.g., “the article argues that an increase in the consumption tax rate to 10% is necessary in order to help pay for the various welfare programs. However, this argument does not consider the negative effects of such a tax rate on the….” etc. You may give your personal opinion here, with your reasons.

Today’s class

  1. summarize the main arguments of the article “Homework stinks!” (textbook p. 154-5).
  2. write a short response to this class (Academic Writing II).
    1. what kind of class is it?
    2. how is it different from other (English) classes?
    3. what are the merits and demerits of this class?
    4. what is your personal opinion about it?
  3. 1-to-1 conferencing to discuss your writing for last week’s assignment.
  4. Enjoy the nice Christmas BGM


Your email address is not made public. Thank you for visiting.

AW2: Week 10, December 14th, 2018

Homework

  • Choose a controversial topic and find two articles on this topic with opposing or different points of view: one article “for” and one “against”. (The original articles may be in either English or Japanese, but of course your response must be in English).
  • summarize in one paragraph the main arguments in each article.
  • DO NOT WRITE YOUR OPINION.
  • List the articles you used in your “works cited” list, using the appropriate MLA format
  • Email it to me by Friday Dec. 21st.
  • Print it out and bring it to class Friday Dec. 21st
  • (Dec. 21st will be the last class of 2018.)

Today’s class

Announcement

I added a new page: Class Collections. You can download the Essay#4 class collection PDF from here: https://www.sheffnersweb.net/blogs/classblogs/kpu/class-collections/


Your email address is not made public. Thank you for visiting.

AW2: Week 9, December 7th, 2018

Announcement

Essay #4 Class Collection is now ready and can be downloaded here: 

Thank you to all those students who graciously gave permission for their essay to appear. (Note: this document is password-protected which limits printing and changes made to the document.)

Homework

  • Write draft 1 (typed) of your response essay (if you have already shown me your typed complete essay, then this will be draft 2)
  • email it to me by next Friday Dec. 14th
  • Print it out and bring to class Dec. 14th.

Today’s class

  1. 1-to-1 conferencing
  2. Textbook:
    1. p. 116 practice 3
    2. p. 120 practice 5
    3. p. 121 practice 6
    4. p. 123 practice 7
    5. Read the article “Don’t Shoot” (pp. 162-3)
    6. p. 115 practice 2


Your email address is not made public. Thank you for visiting.