AW1: Week 4, May 10th, 2019

Homework

Write a paragraph (300-500 words) about what is an essay.

  • research the meaning and history of the English word “essay” (like I researched the meaning and history of the word “academic”) (this will be part of the answer to the questions
    • what is an essay?”
    • “when” did essay writing start (in the West)?
  • research and give the names of 1 or 2 famous Western essay writers (“who?”)
  • give 1 or 2 examples of famous English (or Western) essays.
  • print out and bring to class (May 24th)

Today’s class

  1. “A is A” in Japanese.
  2. Thinking in concepts:
    1. in English, water is qualified as “hot water” or “cold water”, whereas in Japanese they are given two completely different names.
      1. water does not change its identity (H2O) when its temperature changes.
      2. Below 0 degrees it does change its nature, from a liquid to a solid, therefore it is given a different name (ice)
      3. Above 100 degrees it does change its nature, from a liquid to a gas, therefore it is given a different name (steam).
    2. in English, the concept “brother” is qualified as “older brother” or “younger brother”, whereas in Japanese these concepts are given completely different names.
      1. In English, therefore, the essential concept is of brother, a male blood-relative; whether older or younger is a secondary qualifier, which does not change the essential identity.
      2. In Japanese, the names are different, suggesting perhaps that Japanese people think of “older brother” and “younger brother” as two quite different identities.
    3. Straw man argument: this is often used in propaganda so it is useful to be aware of it. Avoid using it yourself in academic writing. Here is the more complete explanation on Japanese Wikipedia: https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/ストローマン
    4. The importance of defining terms: see this example
    5. Free writing: how was your Golden Week?
    6. “What is study?”
      1. Who? What? When? Where? Why?
    7. 1-to-1 conferencing
    8. Collected homework

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