AW2: WEEK 7, NOVEMBER 15TH, 2019

Homework

  1. Re-write draft #2. Save as “AW2 Essay4 Draft3 Lastname”. Email it to me (subject line should be the same) by next Friday. I will email those students whom I did not get a chance to speak to in class today (Nov. 15th).
    1. Print out and bring your draft #3 to the next class.
  2. If you have not yet done so, please read the essay by Bastiat entitled “The Broken Window Fallacy” 
  3. I suggest you read the Japanese explanation first, then the English. Here’s a link to the Japanese one (Wikipedia).

Today’s class

  1. The difference between “uninterested” and “disinterested”. Small differences but important. Academic writers and students (that means you!) are interested in such small differences and understand their importance.
  2. Rights: positive and negative. Group discussions and individual answers in writing.
    1. Right to life (negative)
      1. Who has the right to life?
      2. Where does life come from?
      3. What does “right to life” mean?
      4. Why is the right to life a human right?
    2. Right to an education (positive)
      1. Who has the right to an education?
      2. Where does education come from?
      3. What does “right to an education” mean?
      4. Why is it considered (by many but not by all) as a human right? (see Article 16 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; but not everyone agrees it is a right: for example, French lawyer Bastiat wrote, “

        The most urgent necessity is, not that the State should teach, but that it should allow education. All [legal] monopolies are detestable, but the worst of all is the monopoly of education.

        — By. Frédéric Bastiat

    3. Citations and references. At KPU, Academic Writing students are supposed to use the MLA style. There are two parts to citations:
      1. the in-text citations which are in the main body of your essay, and
      2. the “Works Cited” section which comes after your conclusion at the end of your essay.
      3. Every work cited, that means every website, newspaper and magazine or journal article or book that you use in your essay should be referred to both in the body of your essay and listed in the “Works Cited” section at the end of your essay. The list should be in alphabetical order of authors’ names.
      4. Why should you include citations in your academic essay?
        1. You need to show that you have done some reading about your topic. 
        2. You need to support the points that you are making, i.e. you must give evidence to support your claims.
          1. You must show where you got your information from – not just “the Internet”,
          2. you must give enough information for your reader to find the same article or website or book that you found:
            1. the title of the article or website or book;
            2. the author;
            3. the publisher (Wikipedia is a publisher, for example);
            4. the date of the article, web page or book;
            5. the URL if it’s a website or web page;
            6. the date you accessed it (if it’s a website or web page).
      5. 2 videos (in English) on how to write citations and a bibliography:
          1. Video 1 is here: http://bit.ly/2BvWN6d
          2. Video 2 is here: http://bit.ly/2BliTpw 
            1. This screenshot from video 2 shows the relationship between the in-text citation and the Works Cited (or References) section: screenshot
          3. The examples in the video do not use the MLA style but you should.
            1. Overall guide: http://bit.ly/OWL_MLA4aw2  
            2. MLA in-text citations: http://bit.ly/OWLMLAin-text
            3. MLA Works Cited page basic format: http://bit.ly/MLA4awworkscited
          4. And here is a video in Japanese on how to make citations and a Works Cited page using Microsoft Word. The style used in this video is the APA style (see 1:30 in the video; click the picture below to see a bigger one) but you should choose “MLA” from the drop-down list instead of APA. Screenshot

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AW2: Week 6, November 8th, 2019

Announcement

  • Makeup class to replace Nov. 1st’s cancelled class will be held on Saturday Dec. 14th. Check the noticeboard for the time and place.
  • For those who cannot attend, I will prepare some assignments and post them on this blog.

Homework

Today’s class

  • In groups of 4-5, exchange your draft #2, read and comment.
  • Some general points:
    • show the relationship between ideas. Why do schools require young people to write essays? 
      1. To train the young mind to organize their thinking, to think more logically and abstractly, to learn to base their opinion on objective facts and evidence
      2. The written essay shows the instructor the strengths and weaknesses of a student’s thinking.
    • don’t use your personal opinion as an argument: arguments should be supported by objective evidence. A personal opinion is not an argument. 
    • don’t be vague. Some Japanese expressions sound coy in English, e.g. “People should think more seriously about X” when the person really means “People should stop doing X”.
    • Use positive rather than negative expressions at the beginning of a sentence. E.g. instead of “Not only… but also”, use “In addition to…” or “as well as…”
  • Worksheet: download it here

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AW2: Week 4, October 25th, 2019

Announcement

No class Nov. 1st. Next class will be Nov. 8th. A make-up class will be held Dec. 14th (Sat). Please watch for the official announcement.

Homework

  • Write your draft 2 for your essay #4. 
  • Title of your email AND your document: AW2 Essay4 Draft2 Your Name
  • I will send you some comments/suggestions in the next few days about your draft 1 (which you handed in today Oct. 25th). 

Today’s class

  1. Discussion in small groups about essay #4 draft #1
  2. Review of Toulmin model of argumentation: 
    1. Claim
    2. Evidence (also called data or grounds)
    3. Warrant – often a general rule about how the world works
    4. Counter-argument (also called rebuttal)
  3. Importance of evidence in an academic essay. Some examples from news reports that make claims but provide no data to support them.
  4. Textbook:
    1. p. 99 E Use argumentative language
    2. p. 100 Practice 5
    3. p. 106 Concluding statements
    4. Practice 8
    5. p. 107 Practice 9

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AW2: WEEK 3, OCTOBER 18TH, 2019

Homework

  • Choose ONE topic for your persuasive essay. This can be one of the two topics you used for last week’s homework, or a different topic (if you want to choose something NOT on the list in the textbook, email me first).
  • Start writing your essay: at least write the 3 body paragraphs with topic sentences. Type or write it, and bring it to class next week.

Today’s class

  1. Group discussions of homework (2 persuasive essay topics’ arguments and counter-arguments)
  2. How to persuade people?
    1. Aristotle identified three basic ways:
      1. Logos – appeal to reason (e.g. explaining advantages and disadvantages)
      2. ethos – appeal to morality (e.g. appeal to justice, to doing good or doing the right thing)
      3. pathos – appeal to emotion (e.g. using fear, greed, passion, desire)
    2. Aristotle thought good (effective) speakers should use whichever would be most effective, depending on their audience.
    3. However, generally speaking, for academic writing, use #1.
  3. Structure of an argument (Toulmin model)
      1. Argument = opinion + evidence + support /explanation
          1. Opinion = claim (often using words like “should” or “should not”, “good” or “bad”, etc)
          2. evidence = evidence to support the claim (also called “grounds” or “data”)
          3. support/explanation = warrant. The warrant is often a general rule or principle about how the world works.
            1. “An author usually will not bother to explain the warrant because it is too obvious. It is usually an assumption or a generalization. However, the author must make sure the warrant is clear because the reader must understand the author’s assumptions and why the author assumes these opinions.” (Wikipedia)
          4. counter-argument (also called “rebuttal”)
            1. Often introduced by “However”, “Some people say that…” or similar phrase.
        1. Practice writing warrants for these sample arguments:
          1. Claim 1 – “The 2020 Olympics in Tokyo are a good idea”
          2. Evidence 1  – “because the economy will develop”.
          3. Warrant 1  –
          4. Claim  2 – “The 2020 Olympics in Tokyo are not a good idea”
          5. Evidence 2  – “because Japan will become unsafe”
          6. Warrant 2 –
          7. Evidence 2a – “because there will be a risk of terrorism”
          8. Warrant 2a –
          9. Claim 3 – “Nuclear power is good”
          10. Evidence 3 – because of a positive effect on the economy”
          11. Warrant 3 –
          12. Claim 4 – “Nuclear power is not good”
          13. Evidence 4 – “because it is dangerous”
          14. Warrant 4 –
        2. Counter-argument 4 – “However, …(complete) 

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AW2: Week 2, October 11th, 2019

Homework

  • Choose 2 topics from the list on p. 95 (change #4 to “2020 Tokyo Olympics”)
  • write 2 or 3 arguments FOR and AGAINST the topic (you may need to do a bit of research). You are not just expressing YOUR opinion, but also what OTHER people think about this topic.
  • Bring to class next week.

Today’s class

  1. Body paragraph 1: compare the student originals and Sheffner’s rewrites. What changes did he make and why? Discuss in small groups. Download today’s handout here.
  2. Typical rewrite reasons:
    1. colloquial (= non-academic) language –> academic (formal, scientific) language. E.g. don’t –> do not, get better –> improve, get –> buy/purchase, even so –> nonetheless/however, so –> therefore, etc.
    2. avoid repetition (e.g. replace nouns with pronouns). AVOID USING “WE”.
    3. less is more (generally speaking), e.g. 3 words are better than 6. E.g. clothes we buy for every day –> everyday clothes, school uniform that public junior high school students wore –> public junior high school uniforms, etc.
    4. detail in the wrong place – details do not belong in the introductory paragraph but in the body paragraphs. E.g. According to Mainichi Shimbun on February 14 in 2018, Taimei elementary school in Tokyo decided to use school uniforms designed by Italian luxury brand “Armani” –> According to a 2018 newspaper article, a Tokyo school decided to use uniforms designed by a luxury brand.
    5. expand to make a point clearer – sometimes less is NOT more. Sometimes, arguments need to be explained explicitly (especially warrants; more on this later). E.g., we cannot contact with them –> they may not know who or how to contact them.
  3. Textbook p. 93 Practice 1

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AW2: WEEK 1, October 4th, 2019

Homework

  1. Refresh your memory about the correct email format here
  2. Send me an email with a short comment about today’s class. Use the correct format! Subject: AW2 HW1
  3. Finish noting about the introductory paragraphs in today’s handout (download today’s handout here)
  4. Read the sample essay in the textbook pp 91-2. We will answer questions about this essay in class next week. Be prepared.

Today’s class

  • Textbook for this semester is the same: Writers at Work – The Essay. We will use chapters 4-6.
  • To pass the course, you must write and hand in by the deadline THREE essays of a satisfactory quality.
  • Checklist for introductory paragraphs + sample paragraphs from previous years.
    • read the student introductory paragraphs and evaluate them using the 4-point checklist . If you attended this class, you received everything on a single handout. If not, you can download them as two separate handouts below:
  • Here’s the checklist:
    1. The title should clearly state the content and author’s position.
      • Good example – “School Uniforms are Necessary”
      • Not so good example – “Take it for Free?”
    2. Avoid rhetorical questions: “a question asked in order to create a dramatic effect or to make a point rather than to get an answer.”
    3. Introductory paragraph must contain a thesis statement.
    4. Detailed information belongs in the body paragraphs, not the introduction. The introduction is to introduce the topic (the problem, the matter being discussed in the essay) and the author’s position on it.
  • DIscuss in groups.
  • Textbook p. 94 D, p. 96 Practice 3, p. 98 D, p. 99 E.


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AW1: WEEK 14, JULY 19TH, 2019

Announcement

Next week, July 26th (last class, week 15), the classroom will be in a different building – Room 23.

Homework

  • Use my comments and suggestions to rewrite your draft 1,
  • save as AW1 Essay3 Draft1 YourName, then
  • print it out and bring it to class next Friday.

Today’s class

  • Exchange your draft 1 with a classmate and assess it using the “Peer Review Form” on p. 81
  • Textbook p. 79 Practice 10,
  • Textbook p. 80 Practice 11
  • Textbook p. 84 Practice 14
  • Textbook p. 86 Practice 16

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AW1: WEEK 13, JULY 12TH, 2019

  • Choose a topic for your “compare-contrast” essay (essay #3) from the list on p. 72 (“Your Turn”).
  • Write your first draft, save it as “AW1 Essay3 Draft1 (YourFamilyName).docx” and email it to me by Friday noon 12:00.
  • Bring a hard copy to class to share with your classmates.

Today’s class

  • Exchange your “Problem-solution” essay with a classmate and use the “Peer Review Form” on p. 55 of the textbook.
  • Read the section on “hedging” on p. 59,
  • Textbook p. 61-2 Practice 12 and 13.
  • Textbook p. 63 Practice 14 and 15
  • Textbook p. 65 C
    • English prefers the order main clause + subordinate clause.
    • This may be different from Japanese.
    • In English, the phrase that comes at the end of the sentence gets more emphasis, so put the one you want to emphasize at the end.
      • E.g. “Our family eats beef every day but on Fridays, we eat fish.”
      • Compare with, “We eat fish on Fridays.” I.e. not on any other day.
    • The reason for the comma after the subordinate clause when you put it at the beginning of the sentence is that it shows this is not the subject of the main clause, which usually comes first (S+V+C).
      • E.g. “On Fridays, we have Academic Writing.”
      • The subject is “we”, but it comes in second place.
    • Chapter 3, p. 69 – read the sample essay “Friends.com”.
    • Textbook p. 70, C
    • Choose a topic and make an outline like the one on p. 78. You can also use the Venn diagrams on pp 73, 74 and 77 to make an outline.


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AW1: WEEK 12, JUly 5TH, 2019

Re-write the draft you gave me today, based on what you learned in today’s class (see the points below). Save your file as “AW1 Essay2 Draft2 (Your Name)”. Send it to me by email, with the subject of the email being the same. Print it out and bring it to class next Friday to exchange with classmates.

  • Does your introductory paragraph contain a clear explanation of the problem (including WHY it is a problem)?
  • Does your introductory paragraph contain a complete thesis statement?
  • Does your essay contain claims + evidence + warrants?
  • Does your conclusion repeat and summarize the intro and the topic sentences of the body paragraphs? Remember: no new information in the conclusion!
  • Do your sentences follow logically from each other?
  • Have you replaced negative sentences (“not…”) with positive ones?
  • Have you avoided using “we” (you need to specify who “we” is, first)?
  • Have you avoided using “I” (your personal experience, though useful,, is not by itself sufficient; you need more objective evidence to support your argument)?

Today’s class

  • reading classmates’ essays (essay #2, draft #1)
  • textbook
    • p. 31 Conclusion (read the checklist)
    • p. 53 Practice 8
    • p. 57 Practice 9
    • p. 58-9 Practice 10
  • 1-to-1 conferences about last week’s writing (introduction)

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AW1: WEEK 11, JUNE 28th, 2019

  • Write your first draft of essay #2 “Problem-solution”.
  • Type it, print it out and bring a copy to class next Friday. (I will collect your copy, so you need a copy of your own to work with for the following week.

Today’s class

  1. What is the problem?
    1. What is the consequence?
  2. Why is it a problem?
  3. Who is it a problem for?

All these questions need to be addressed in your essay, ideally in your introduction.

You can download today’s worksheet here.

Why is this important? Because you need to be sure that what you think is a problem is based on facts, not “image”.

E.g. “There has been an increase in the number of accidents caused by elderly drivers.” Has there? Is that a fact, supported by statistics, or is it an impression caused by media attention?

Angel Bank by Mita Norifusa. “Don’t be tricked by the media. Don’t be misled by images.” Good advice, in any culture.

Model of Argument(ation) (The Toulmin model)

An argument =

  • (1) a claim (an opinion +
  • (2) “grounds”/evidence) +
  • (3) support (warrant).
  • (4) rebuttal

E.g. “Students have too much homework” (1 – claim). “The evidence is that many students sleep in class.” (2 – grounds/evidence). “People who work too hard may fall asleep even during the day and at inappropriate times or in inappropriate places.” (3- warrant = a general rule or principle). “However, some people might say that students might fall asleep from playing too hard or some other reason” (4 – rebuttal).


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