AW2: WEEK 3, OCTOBER 18TH, 2019

Homework

  • Choose ONE topic for your persuasive essay. This can be one of the two topics you used for last week’s homework, or a different topic (if you want to choose something NOT on the list in the textbook, email me first).
  • Start writing your essay: at least write the 3 body paragraphs with topic sentences. Type or write it, and bring it to class next week.

Today’s class

  1. Group discussions of homework (2 persuasive essay topics’ arguments and counter-arguments)
  2. How to persuade people?
    1. Aristotle identified three basic ways:
      1. Logos – appeal to reason (e.g. explaining advantages and disadvantages)</li >
      2. ethos – appeal to morality (e.g. appeal to justice, to doing good or doing the right thing)
      3. pathos – appeal to emotion (e.g. using fear, greed, passion, desire)
    2. Aristotle thought good (effective) speakers should use whichever would be most effective, depending on their audience.
    3. However, generally speaking, for academic writing, use #1.
  3. Structure of an argument (Toulmin model)
      1. Argument = opinion + evidence + support /explanation
          1. Opinion = claim (often using words like “should” or “should not”, “good” or “bad”, etc)
          2. evidence = evidence to support the claim (also called “grounds” or “data”)
          3. support/explanation = warrant. The warrant is often a general rule or principle about how the world works.
            1. “An author usually will not bother to explain the warrant because it is too obvious. It is usually an assumption or a generalization. However, the author must make sure the warrant is clear because the reader must understand the author’s assumptions and why the author assumes these opinions.” (Wikipedia)
          4. counter-argument (also called “rebuttal”)
            1. Often introduced by “However”, “Some people say that…” or similar phrase.
        1. Practice writing warrants for these sample arguments:
          1. Claim 1 – “The 2020 Olympics in Tokyo are a good idea”
          2. Evidence 1  – “because the economy will develop”.
          3. Warrant 1  –
          4. Claim  2 – “The 2020 Olympics in Tokyo are not a good idea”
          5. Evidence 2  – “because Japan will become unsafe”
          6. Warrant 2 –
          7. Evidence 2a – “because there will be a risk of terrorism”
          8. Warrant 2a –
          9. Claim 3 – “Nuclear power is good”
          10. Evidence 3 – because of a positive effect on the economy”
          11. Warrant 3 –
          12. Claim 4 – “Nuclear power is not good”
          13. Evidence 4 – “because it is dangerous”
          14. Warrant 4 –
        2. Counter-argument 4 – “However, …(complete) 

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AW2: Week 2, October 11th, 2019

Homework

  • Choose 2 topics from the list on p. 95 (change #4 to “2020 Tokyo Olympics”)
  • write 2 or 3 arguments FOR and AGAINST the topic (you may need to do a bit of research). You are not just expressing YOUR opinion, but also what OTHER people think about this topic.
  • Bring to class next week.

Today’s class

  1. Body paragraph 1: compare the student originals and Sheffner’s rewrites. What changes did he make and why? Discuss in small groups. Download today’s handout here.
  2. Typical rewrite reasons:
    1. colloquial (= non-academic) language –> academic (formal, scientific) language. E.g. don’t –> do not, get better –> improve, get –> buy/purchase, even so –> nonetheless/however, so –> therefore, etc.
    2. avoid repetition (e.g. replace nouns with pronouns). AVOID USING “WE”.
    3. less is more (generally speaking), e.g. 3 words are better than 6. E.g. clothes we buy for every day –> everyday clothes, school uniform that public junior high school students wore –> public junior high school uniforms, etc.
    4. detail in the wrong place – details do not belong in the introductory paragraph but in the body paragraphs. E.g. According to Mainichi Shimbun on February 14 in 2018, Taimei elementary school in Tokyo decided to use school uniforms designed by Italian luxury brand “Armani” –> According to a 2018 newspaper article, a Tokyo school decided to use uniforms designed by a luxury brand.
    5. expand to make a point clearer – sometimes less is NOT more. Sometimes, arguments need to be explained explicitly (especially warrants; more on this later). E.g., we cannot contact with them –> they may not know who or how to contact them.
  3. Textbook p. 93 Practice 1

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AW2: WEEK 1, October 4th, 2019

Homework

  1. Refresh your memory about the correct email format here
  2. Send me an email with a short comment about today’s class. Use the correct format! Subject: AW2 HW1
  3. Finish noting about the introductory paragraphs in today’s handout (download today’s handout here)
  4. Read the sample essay in the textbook pp 91-2. We will answer questions about this essay in class next week. Be prepared.

Today’s class

  • Textbook for this semester is the same: Writers at Work – The Essay. We will use chapters 4-6.
  • To pass the course, you must write and hand in by the deadline THREE essays of a satisfactory quality.
  • Checklist for introductory paragraphs + sample paragraphs from previous years.
    • read the student introductory paragraphs and evaluate them using the 4-point checklist . If you attended this class, you received everything on a single handout. If not, you can download them as two separate handouts below:
  • Here’s the checklist:
    1. The title should clearly state the content and author’s position.
      • Good example – “School Uniforms are Necessary”
      • Not so good example – “Take it for Free?”
    2. Avoid rhetorical questions: “a question asked in order to create a dramatic effect or to make a point rather than to get an answer.”
    3. Introductory paragraph must contain a thesis statement.
    4. Detailed information belongs in the body paragraphs, not the introduction. The introduction is to introduce the topic (the problem, the matter being discussed in the essay) and the author’s position on it.
  • DIscuss in groups.
  • Textbook p. 94 D, p. 96 Practice 3, p. 98 D, p. 99 E.


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AW1: WEEK 14, JULY 19TH, 2019

Announcement

Next week, July 26th (last class, week 15), the classroom will be in a different building – Room 23.

Homework

  • Use my comments and suggestions to rewrite your draft 1,
  • save as AW1 Essay3 Draft1 YourName, then
  • print it out and bring it to class next Friday.

Today’s class

  • Exchange your draft 1 with a classmate and assess it using the “Peer Review Form” on p. 81
  • Textbook p. 79 Practice 10,
  • Textbook p. 80 Practice 11
  • Textbook p. 84 Practice 14
  • Textbook p. 86 Practice 16

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AW1: WEEK 13, JULY 12TH, 2019

  • Choose a topic for your “compare-contrast” essay (essay #3) from the list on p. 72 (“Your Turn”).
  • Write your first draft, save it as “AW1 Essay3 Draft1 (YourFamilyName).docx” and email it to me by Friday noon 12:00.
  • Bring a hard copy to class to share with your classmates.

Today’s class

  • Exchange your “Problem-solution” essay with a classmate and use the “Peer Review Form” on p. 55 of the textbook.
  • Read the section on “hedging” on p. 59,
  • Textbook p. 61-2 Practice 12 and 13.
  • Textbook p. 63 Practice 14 and 15
  • Textbook p. 65 C
    • English prefers the order main clause + subordinate clause.
    • This may be different from Japanese.
    • In English, the phrase that comes at the end of the sentence gets more emphasis, so put the one you want to emphasize at the end.
      • E.g. “Our family eats beef every day but on Fridays, we eat fish.”
      • Compare with, “We eat fish on Fridays.” I.e. not on any other day.
    • The reason for the comma after the subordinate clause when you put it at the beginning of the sentence is that it shows this is not the subject of the main clause, which usually comes first (S+V+C).
      • E.g. “On Fridays, we have Academic Writing.”
      • The subject is “we”, but it comes in second place.
    • Chapter 3, p. 69 – read the sample essay “Friends.com”.
    • Textbook p. 70, C
    • Choose a topic and make an outline like the one on p. 78. You can also use the Venn diagrams on pp 73, 74 and 77 to make an outline.


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AW1: WEEK 12, JUly 5TH, 2019

Re-write the draft you gave me today, based on what you learned in today’s class (see the points below). Save your file as “AW1 Essay2 Draft2 (Your Name)”. Send it to me by email, with the subject of the email being the same. Print it out and bring it to class next Friday to exchange with classmates.

  • Does your introductory paragraph contain a clear explanation of the problem (including WHY it is a problem)?
  • Does your introductory paragraph contain a complete thesis statement?
  • Does your essay contain claims + evidence + warrants?
  • Does your conclusion repeat and summarize the intro and the topic sentences of the body paragraphs? Remember: no new information in the conclusion!
  • Do your sentences follow logically from each other?
  • Have you replaced negative sentences (“not…”) with positive ones?
  • Have you avoided using “we” (you need to specify who “we” is, first)?
  • Have you avoided using “I” (your personal experience, though useful,, is not by itself sufficient; you need more objective evidence to support your argument)?

Today’s class

  • reading classmates’ essays (essay #2, draft #1)
  • textbook
    • p. 31 Conclusion (read the checklist)
    • p. 53 Practice 8
    • p. 57 Practice 9
    • p. 58-9 Practice 10
  • 1-to-1 conferences about last week’s writing (introduction)

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AW1: WEEK 11, JUNE 28th, 2019

  • Write your first draft of essay #2 “Problem-solution”.
  • Type it, print it out and bring a copy to class next Friday. (I will collect your copy, so you need a copy of your own to work with for the following week.

Today’s class

  1. What is the problem?
    1. What is the consequence?
  2. Why is it a problem?
  3. Who is it a problem for?

All these questions need to be addressed in your essay, ideally in your introduction.

You can download today’s worksheet here.

Why is this important? Because you need to be sure that what you think is a problem is based on facts, not “image”.

E.g. “There has been an increase in the number of accidents caused by elderly drivers.” Has there? Is that a fact, supported by statistics, or is it an impression caused by media attention?

Angel Bank by Mita Norifusa. “Don’t be tricked by the media. Don’t be misled by images.” Good advice, in any culture.

Model of Argument(ation) (The Toulmin model)

An argument =

  • (1) a claim (an opinion +
  • (2) “grounds”/evidence) +
  • (3) support (warrant).
  • (4) rebuttal

E.g. “Students have too much homework” (1 – claim). “The evidence is that many students sleep in class.” (2 – grounds/evidence). “People who work too hard may fall asleep even during the day and at inappropriate times or in inappropriate places.” (3- warrant = a general rule or principle). “However, some people might say that students might fall asleep from playing too hard or some other reason” (4 – rebuttal).


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AW1: WEEK 10, JUNE 21st, 2019

  • Write the introduction and conclusion for your essay #2 (problem-solution)
  • Be sure to include the problem and why it is a problem, e.g. state the consequences, as in the 2013 student essay which you can see here.
  • Remember, the conclusion should basically repeat the information in the introduction. No new information in the conclusion!
  • Write it by hand or type it, and bring it to class to show to classmates next Friday.

Today’s class

  • Freewriting: how was your week? Mine was pretty stressful and I was feeling tired all week, including today’s class. 🙁
  • Read the first two paragraphs (again) of Swift’s satirical essay “A Modest Proposal”.
    • Notice how he describes the problem, but does not explain the consequences (this is not an academic essay, so he does not have to!)
  • Write the introduction for your essay #2 (problem-solution).
  • In groups of 5-6, read each other’s writing and give feedback: is the problem (and consequences) clearly stated? Are you convinced it is a real problem?
  • Read the introduction of a problem-solution essay written by a 2013 AW1 student.
  • Re-write your introduction if necessary.


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AW1: WEEK 9, JUNE 14TH, 2019

  • Read the sample student “Problem-solution” essays. You can view them here.
  • Choose a topic for your “Problem-solution” essay.
  • List the bibliographic information for Swift’s essay and a Japanese translation (if you used one), using the MLA style.
  • Email me your essay topic and the bibliographic information by Wednesday midnight.

Today’s class

  1. Discussion about the Swift essay.
    1. Was Swift making a serious proposal?
    2. What is the name for this kind of writing?
    3. What did you notice about the structure of his essay?
  2. Discussion about essay citation homework.
  3. Sentence-correction worksheet (continued).


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AW1: Week 8, June 7th, 2019

  1. Read the sample essay in the textbook pp. 43-4.
  2. Write out the title and source information for the essay that you discussed in class today,
    1. for the original essay
    2. for the Japanese translation (if you used one)
    3. using the MLA format and email it to me as an attachment by Wednesday midnight. Save the document as “AW1 Essay Citation Your Name” and use the same for the subject line of your email. Everything should be in Roman characters. No Chinese characters.
      1. essay in a book: Last name, First name. “Title of Essay.” Title of Collection, edited by Editor’s Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.
      2. a translation, e.g.: Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988.
      3. A page on a web site: For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. Usually, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once. E.g.:
        1. “Athlete’s Foot – Topic Overview.” WebMD, 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview.
        2. Lundman, Susan. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.” eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.
        3. From Purdue Online Writing Lab https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/

      Today’s class

      • Group discussions of the essays read for last week’s homework.
      • Sentence-correction and analysis

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website for Sheffner's Academic Writing class at Kyoto Prefectural University, Japan. Since 2012.